Chittaranjan Andrade Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Address for correspondence: Chittaranjan Andrade, Department of Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore —Karnataka, India. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Abstracts of scientific papers are sometimes poorly written, often lack important information, and occasionally convey a biased picture. This paper provides detailed suggestions, with examples, for writing the background, methods, results, and conclusions sections of a good abstract.
The primary target of this paper is the young researcher; however, authors with all levels of experience may find useful ideas in the paper. Earlier articles offered suggestions on how to write a good case report,[ 1 ] and how to read, write, or review a paper on randomized controlled trials. Although the primary target of this paper is the young researcher, it is likely that authors with all levels of experience will find at least a few ideas that may be useful in their future efforts. The abstract of a paper is the only part of the paper that is published in conference proceedings.
The abstract is the only part of the paper that a potential referee sees when he is invited by an editor to review a manuscript. The abstract is the only part of the paper that readers see when they search through electronic databases such as PubMed. Finally, most readers will acknowledge, with a chuckle, that when they leaf through the hard copy of a journal, they look at only the titles of the contained papers. If a title interests them, they glance through the abstract of that paper.
Only a dedicated reader will peruse the contents of the paper, and then, most often only the introduction and discussion sections. Only a reader with a very specific interest in the subject of the paper, and a need to understand it thoroughly, will read the entire paper. Thus, for the vast majority of readers, the paper does not exist beyond its abstract.
For the referees, and the few readers who wish to read beyond the abstract, the abstract sets the tone for the rest of the paper. It is therefore the duty of the author to ensure that the abstract is properly representative of the entire paper. For this, the abstract must have some general qualities. These are listed in Table 1. General qualities of a good abstract SECTIONS OF AN ABSTRACT Although some journals still publish abstracts that are written as free-flowing paragraphs, most journals require abstracts to conform to a formal structure within a word count of, usually, — words.
Morrill Memorial Library and Virtual Catalog. Use your NHS ID ppaers apply wrtiing a public library source at the public library located at 33 Walpole Street. And Massachusetts Board of Library Commissioners has free digital collections. Evaluating Websites Learn the A, B, C, D of web site evaluation, and you'll always be set. What should you ask yourself before using a web site in your research paper. Whichever system you use, paper, online, or a combination of the two, be sure that you have in- cluded identifying information on each card.
You want to easily be able to organize your material. An excellent guide from John Woods Community College Library in Illinois. Very clear and concise. Take good notes and label them. You're more than half way to an excellent product. University of Toronto You have to cite any information you use from any source.
That includes using music in your power point presentation or the person you interview. Well, it can be tricky. It is certainly more complicated than just not using someone's exact words. Check out at least one of these sources..
References Additional Parts for Some Academic Papers The following parts may be acceptable to include in some scientific standards, but may be inappropriate for other standards. Table of Contents Usually placed right before or right after the abstract Acknowledgments Sometimes placed before the abstract and sometimes at the end of a paper Appendices Placement: After all the other parts Other Technical Issues When correcting papers, we have been surprised by the many students struggling with intext citations.
Although the standards are somewhat different, citations in the text should not be too difficult to master. The most used standards for referencing in research papers are APA-standard and MLA-standard. Some paper formats allow you to include footnotes in the text, while some do not allow footnotes.
Authors frequently want to include tables and figures in the text. Sometimes the format or standard prohibits the authors from entering tables and figures directly into the text where you want your table. Sometimes they have to be included after the main text. Standards and Formats Please observe that most witing fields and paper formats have their own specific rules and standards of writing. You scientifiv have to check with your faculty or school to know exactly how to write the paper - the guide is meant as an overview of academic papers in general.
Publish Articles Publication of your article can be a very time-consuming process. After writing the academic paper, the researchers submit it to a journal. Typically you start with the most regarded journal and then work yourself down the list, until a journal accepts the article. Scientific journals use peer review processwhich is a panel of other researchers most likely in the same field who review the work, to ensure that the scientiric of the paper. Publication bias is a well known phenomenon, as the peer review process often rejects "null results". A journal rejection does not necessarily mean that you click here not have a chance to resubmit the journal though..
Print Let us discuss the most basic and important aspect of a research paper—the writiny. Writing a research paper title may seem a simple task, but it requires some serious thought. Readers come across research paper titles in searches through databases and reference sections of research papers. They deduce what a paper is about and its relevance to them based on the title. Considering this, it is clear that the title of your paper is the most important determinant of how many people will read it. A good research paper title: So keep the title brief and clear. Use active verbs instead of complex noun-based phrases, and avoid unnecessary details.
Moreover, a good title for a research paper is typically around 10 to 12 words long. Drug XYZ has an effect of muscular contraction for an hour in snails of Achatina fulcia species Better: Drug XYZ induces muscular contraction in Achatina fulcia snails 2] Use appropriate descriptive words: A good research paper title should contain key words used in the manuscript and should define the nature of the study. Think about terms tips for writing good research papers would use to search for your study and include them in your title.
Effects of drug A on schizophrenia patients: Psychosocial tipe of drug A on schizophrenia patients: Known abbreviations such as AIDS, NATO, and so on can be used in the title. However, other lesser-known or specific abbreviations and jargon that would not be immediately familiar to see more readers should be left out. Do you have any questions related to research writing. Ask your question now Avoid: MMP expression profiles cannot distinguish between normal and early osteoarthritic synovial fluid Better: Matrix metalloproteinase protein expression profiles cannot distinguish between normal and early osteoarthritic synovial fluid Always write down the hypothesis and then take into consideration these simple hips.
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This material is protected under all copyright laws, as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. Features A traditional but practical approach to the research process Help with Digital Research: Every chapter reflects the current context for academic writing, including the impact of technology on searching for appropriate topics, finding and evaluating source material, gathering notes and drafting the paper, avoiding plagiarism and embracing academic integrity, and, of course, documenting sources.
Students are directed step-by-step with clear, detailed guidance on blending electronic citations into their writing. To enable students to document sources correctly, this edition includes updated guidelines for the most important documentation formats, including: Guidelines for Evaluating Online Sources assist student researchers in deciding if and when to use familiar search engines such as Google or Yahoo.
Student writing examples provide models for student writers of how other students have researched and drafted papers on a wide range of topics. Seven annotated sample papers, more than are in any other text of this kind, demonstrate format, documentation, and the different academic styles. Sample abstracts in MLA and APA style are also displayed. Arranged into ten general categories, the Appendix allows a researcher to have quick access to relevant library books, library databases, and Internet sites.
As in previous editions, the text is printed in full color, making information and features easier to find and more pleasing to read, and bringing strong, visual elements to the instruction. The spiral-bound version also includes tab dividers to make information easier to find. The tabs include additional web sites, as well as tables of contents for the following sections.
New and updated content engages students and ensures an up-to-date learning experience NEW. These serve as a ready guide for finding documentation information quickly and recalling the key goals of the chapter. New explanations of research techniques in Chapter 4 show students how to apply cutting-edge tools and strategies in their research, including keyword searches with expanded Boolean operators and social networking sites. Three new student papers, plus a new annotated bibliography, provide fresh models of student research work.
Updated coverage of MLA and APA documentation style brings students up to speed with the latest revisions, including how to handle electronic source documentation. New to This Edition Writing Research Papers:.
Check out public and university libraries, businesses, government agencies, as well as contact knowledgeable people in your community. Bookmark your favorite Internet sites. Printout, photocopy, and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages, and your date of access on your work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your laptop or desktop computer for later retrieval. If printing from the Internet, it is wise to set up the browser to print the URL and date of access for every page.
Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source. STATE YOUR THESIS Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your thesis statement is like a go here of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief.
MAKE A TENTATIVE OUTLINE All points must relate to the same major topic that you first mentioned in your capital Roman numeral. Example of an outline: BODY - Shakespeare's Early Life, Marriage, Works, Later Years A. Early life in Stratford 1. Life of Anne Hathaway b. Reference in Shakespeare's Poems B. Romeo and Juliet b. Much Ado About Nothing c.
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue https: When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of this web page American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Paiz, Elizabeth Angeli, Jodi Wagner, Elena Lawrick, Kristen Moore, Michael Anderson, Lars Soderlund, Allen Brizee, Russell Keck Last Edited: To see a side-by-side comparison of the three most widely used citation styles, including a chart of all APA citation guidelines, see the Citation Style Chart.
You can also watch our APA vidcast series on the Purdue OWL YouTube Channel. General APA Guidelines Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper 8. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt. Times New Roman font. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation. Major Paper Sections Your essay should include four major sections: Title Page The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation.
Include the page header described above flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page. TITLE OF YOUR PAPER Pages after the title page should have a running head that looks like this: TITLE OF YOUR PAPER After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers have incorrect examples of Running heads on pages after the title page. This link will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA's 6th edition style guide. Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page.
APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced. Beneath the title, type the apa style guide for writing research papers name: Do not use titles Dr.
Beneath the author's name, type the institutional affiliation, which should indicate the location where the author s conducted the research. APA Title Page Abstract Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header described above. Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research.
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