Guide to writing research papers mla
GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS IN THE MLA STYLE This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the MLA style. For more complete information, see the MLA Style Manual or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand. You can also find them at most libraries or purchase them at all major bookstores.
Always ask your Mentor which style to use before you begin your paper. The MLA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the Modern Language Association. The MLA style is used in some areas of the humanities, e. Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for formatting your papers.
Ask your Primary Mentor which style to use, then come to the Writing Center for further guidance. Basic MLA Facts Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of works cited. Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right. Use a Works Cited page for reference to parenthetical citations. Number pages in the upper right hand corner of the page. Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on such materials. Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events.
As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of a Madman, "I was never ignorant" Winkleman's purpose in Diary of a Madman is to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Moore created Winkleman not only to use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own opinions. To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a Works Cited page. Always cite direct quotations see below.
If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the words. Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and language, and use an in-text citation to acknowledge the source. Then, list on the Works Cited page the publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. The Writing Center here at GVC has a separate handout on this called, "Plagiarism and How to Avoid it: In-text Citations First Appearance Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in the source, read more exclude titles such as Mr.
Be sure to include the page number s on which the cited material can be found. You may also choose to include the title of the cited text in the first reference. Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, to write good fiction, authors of short fiction must master grammar rezearch punctuation The phrase "Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, After the first appearance, use only the author's last name within the text of your writing; you do not need to restate the name of the text.
Moore created Winkleman not only to use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own guide to writing research papers mla. Then list each selection separately, giving the author and title of the selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. If you are asked to submit your paper electronically, obtain from your teacher guidelines for formatting, mode of submission e. In this example, we have changed the first word a little, lowercasing it in order to fit it into our own sentence. Type both label and title flush left on separate lines above the table, and capitalize them as titles do not use all capital letters. For writers creating in-text citations and Works Cited lists for online sources, the MLA Handbook provides the following recommendations: The phrase "Rebecca Peacey writint in The Art of the Short Story that,
Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language Authors Name Not Used in Text If you don't use the author's name in the text, place only the last name within the parenthetical citation with the page number. In the parenthetical citation, don't use "p. Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as "pretentious, trashy, and inane" Peacey More Than One Author If a cited rexearch has more than one author, either include all names in the parenthetical citation according to how they are listed in the source, or list the first author followed by et.
Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer In the following example of what not to do, there is no clear distinction between the student's words and ideas and the cited author's words and ideas. Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of avian symbolism in his fiction. Eagles stand for self-deterministic freedom. Ravens signify the mysterious. Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a "cliched symbolistic literature" in America Crowe In comparison, the following passage clearly delineates resaerch and ideas, click here the reader of this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and ideas from Crowe's mlq, For the Birds.
In For the Birds, James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and ml. In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the tradition of "cliched symbolistic literature" for America Read more you are citing an author who has been quoted in another book or article, use the original gjide name in the text and the author of the source in which you found the quotation in the parenthetical citation.
It is far more important for authors to ". Quotation Lengths Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks. Crowe argues that "Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise" More than four typed lines of any direct quotation must be indented. From the left margin, indent one inch on a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter.
Double space the quotation, and don't use quotation marks. Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the last punctuation mark of the quotation. Peacey states that many authors of contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of proficiency is detrimental to these authors' works and may well be damaging to the language as a whole. She makes this huide Authors of fiction have always manipulated the grammar of their respective eras.
Whether writing in dialect to validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules. However, the misuse of language by contemporary writers is more often the result of ignorance of grammar than it is of creative design. For vuide variety of reasons, not the least of which is academic political researxh, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the language in which they write.
Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge. For two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch or three typed spaces beyond the original one inch or ten space indentation. Two or More Works by the Same Author If your list ghide works cited includes two or more works by the same author, include the title of the work either in the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference.
In his article "California and the West," reporter T. The title of an article from a periodical should be put in quotation marks, here in the examples. The title of a book should be underlined or italicized. When both the author and a short title must be given in parentheses, the citation should appear as follows: The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in California sincewhen voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal Miller, "Cougars" 1.
The Author Is Unknown If the author is not given, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a researc form of the title in the parentheses. In California, fish and game officials estimate that since lion numbers have increased from 2, to at least 6, "Lion" A Authors With the Same Last Name Reesearch your list of works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the first name of the author you are citing in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference.
At least 66, lions were killed between and in Canada and the United Writign Kevin Hansen A Novel, a Play, or a Poem In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage writibg various editions papere the work. For a novel, put the page number first and then, if possible, indicate the part or chapter in which the passage can be found. Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in a moment of isolation: For a verse play, list the act, scene, and line numbers, separated by periods. Use Arabic numerals unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals.
In his famous advice to the players, Hamlet defines the purpose of theater, ".
For a poem, cite the part if there are a number of parts and the line numbers, separated by periods. When Homer's Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men ". The Bible If the book of the Bible that you are citing does not appear in the signal phrase, include it in parentheses along with the chapter and verse numbers. Tesearch the words of Solomon: If it is relevant, you lma also include the version of the Bible you are citing: Two or More Works To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the citations with a semicolon.
The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker ; Williams Multiple citations can be distracting to readers, however, so the techniques should not be overused. If you want to alert readers to several sources that discuss a particular topic, consider using an information note instead. A Work without Page Numbers You may omit the page number if a work has no page numbers.
Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. For such sources, use the abbreviation "par. An Electronic Source To cite an electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for print sources. If the source has an author and there is a page number, provide both. Using historical writings about leprosy as an example, Demaitre argues that ".
Electronic sources often lack page numbers. If the source uses some other numbering system, such as paragraphs or sections, specify them, using an abbreviation "par. Otherwise, use no number at all. A clip of the film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that "cinema is all about transformation, not mere movement" Routt, sec. Volti writes, "As with all significant innovations, the history of the automobile shows that technological advance is fueled by more than economic calculation. If the electronic source has no known author, either use the complete title in a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in parentheses.
According to a Web page sponsored by the Children's Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day "Child" II. Use paperw Ellipsis Points When you omit a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, you must use ellipsis points, or three papesr periods, to indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original.
If you omit a word or a phrase at the beginning or ml the middle of a quoted sentence, use three periods with one space between each season essay summer english in of to indicate the omission. Moore states that ". Use four ellipsis points to indicate the omission of an entire sentence within a quotation.
Peacey claims that ". It is the author's duty to be aware of the language's grammatical conventions as well as to be knowledgeable of its linguistic history" 7. Use four spaced periods to indicate an omission ersearch the end of a direct quotation. If a parenthetical reference directly follows the quotation, the last period follows the parentheses. Lovejoy argues that ". If no parenthetical reference follows guide to writing research papers mla omission, end the quotation with four spaced periods enclosed by an ending quotation mark.
Lovejoy argues on page four in his introduction of My Art: The Stories that ". The Works Cited Page The Works Cited page immediately follows the text of the paper. Alphabetize by the authors' last names. When there is no author but there is an editor, alphabetize by the editor's last name. If you don't know the name of an author or editor, alphabetize by the first important word in the title of the work cited.
Center the title Works Cited one inch from the top of the sheet. Double space between the title and the first entry. Place the first line of each entry flush with the left margin. Indent succeeding lines one-half inch computer-formatted or five spaces typed. Double space each entry, and double space between entries. Use two spaces after periods and one space manages my dream india essay in hindi MoreUsually other punctuation marks.
Remember, you must always have a Works Cited page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism. Books Begin each reference at the left hand margin. List the author's last name first, then the first name followed by a period. Type two spaces, then list the title of the book underlined and with the first letter of all major words capitalized.
The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker ; Williams Pyotr Ilich Tchaikovsky, Symphony no. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. If the source uses some other numbering system, such as paragraphs or sections, specify them, using an abbreviation "par. Table, give it an arabic numeral, and title it. Purdue University Online Writing Lab Handouts and exercises on research skills and resources and the writing of research papers.
Paperrs period follows not underlined. Next list the place city of publication followed by a colon, one space, the publisher followed by a comma, and the year of publication followed by a period. Omit the words Publishing Company and Inc. If the reference is more than one line in length, indent one-half inch computer formatted or five spaces typed all lines following the first.
Double space all lines. Book by one Author Hyde, Bernard. The New Historical Criticism in America. List two or more books by the same author alphabetically by title.
Give the author's name in the first entry only. After the first entry, type three hyphens and a period. Skip guids spaces, then list the title. In the following example, UP is the accepted MLA abbreviation for University Press.
May want to mla writing guide research papers who viewed
Representation of Indigenous North American Mammalia in Twentieth Century American Humor. Character Stereotypes in Cold War American Literature. Books by two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book. Reverse only the first author's name. Ciccone, Eva, Lorna Smith, and Natasha Fatale. Femininity and Feminism in Literature: If a book has more than three authors, either list all authors as shown above or list only the first author followed by a comma, a space, then et al.
Jones, Sarah, Michael Williams, Charles Porter, William Mayer, and Anthony Rofollo. Scenes in a Coffee Shop. List any book beyond the first edition by including oapers edition two spaces after the period which concludes the title. Do not underline the designation for the edition. For an author's work cited in a textbook, anthology, or other full-length work, list according to the author of the cited work within the anthology.
Typically, such a cited work would be an article, an essay, a short story, or a poem, so enclose the title of the cited work within quotation marks. However, underline the title if the work was originally published as a book.
Writing guide to papers mla research online paper
Always underline the title of the anthology, which immediately follows the title of the work. Include the page numbers of the anthology in which the cited work appears. Editor An entry for an editor is similar to that for an author except that the name is followed by a comma and the abbreviation "ed. A Collection of Brief Creative Nonfiction. Author with an Editor Begin with the author and title, followed by the name tuide the editor.
In this case the abbreviation "Ed. Translation List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write "Trans. Arabian Nights and Days. Unknown Author Begin with the title.
Alphabetize the entry by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The. Oxford Essential World Atlas. Edition Other Than the First If you are citing an edition other than the first, include the number of the edition after the title: The Irish Question and British Politics, Multivolume Work Include the total number of volumes before the city and publisher, using the abbreviation "vols. If your paper cites only one of the volumes, give the volume number before the city and publisher and give the total number of volumes in the work after the date. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Encyclopedia or Dictionary Articles in well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in abbreviated form.
Simply list the author of the article if there is onethe title of the article, the title of the reference work, the edition number, if any, and the date of the edition. Volume and page numbers are not necessary because the entries are arranged alphabetically and therefore are easy to locate.
- Always cite direct quotations see below.
- Continue it on as many pages as necessary.
- Placement of the List of Works Cited The list of works cited appears at the end of the paper, after any endnotes.
If a reference work is not well known, provide full publishing information as well. The Bible The Bible is not included in the list of works cited. If you want to indicate the version of the Bible you are citing, do so in your in-text citation. Work in an Anthology Present the information in this order, with each item followed by a period: Oxford University Press, If an anthology gives the original publication information for a selection and if your instructor prefers that you use it, cite that information first.
Two or More Works From the Same Anthology If you wish, you may cross-reference two or more works from the same anthology. Provide a separate entry for the anthology with complete publication information. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Then list each selection separately, giving the author and title of the selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology.
The cross-reference should include the last name of the editor of the anthology and the page numbers in the anthology on which the selection appears. Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword If in your paper you quote from one of these elements, begin with the name of the writer of that element. Then identify the element being cited, neither underlined nor in quotation marks, followed by the title of the complete book, the book's author, and the reseaarch editor, if any.
After the publication information, give the page numbers on which the foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword appears. Book with a Title within Its Title If the book title contains a title normally underlined or italicizedneither underline nor italicize the internal title nor place it in quotation marks. James Joyce and Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses. New York UP, If the title within the title is normally enclosed within quotation marks, retain the quotation marks and underline or italicize the entire title.
Twentieth Century Interpretations of "The Pardoner's Tale. Book in a Series Before the publication information, cite the series name as it appears on the title page followed by the series number, if any. The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative. Francophone Cultures and Literatures Paperrs. Republished Book After the title of the book, cite the original publication date followed by the rezearch publication information. If the republished book contains new material, see more as an introduction or afterword, include that information after the original date.
Foreword William Least Heat Moon. Publisher's Imprint If a book was published by an imprint of a publishing company, cite the name of the imprint followed by a hyphen and the publisher's name. The name of the imprint usually precedes the publisher's name on the title page. The Moral Intelligence of Children: How to Raise a Moral Child.
Periodicals Periodicals are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and journals. Generally, list the author stitle of article in quotation marks, name of the journal underlined, series number if relevantvolume number for journalsissue number if neededdate of publication, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by "p. Journals Many scholarly journals are paged continuously throughout the year. The year's first wditing begins on page one, and subsequent issues begin on the page where the issue preceding them ends.
Therefore, listing the month of publication is unnecessary. Instead, list the volume number followed by the year of publication in parentheses. Then yo a colon followed by page number s on which the article appears. However, some journals page each issue separately. In such cases, include in the bibliographic citation the volume number immediately followed by a period, which is immediately followed by the issue number. Migration Beyond the Suburb. Magazines Weekly For a magazine researh weekly or biweekly, follow the general directions for periodicals, but include the entire date with papesr day first, followed by the month abbreviated and year.
Do not include an issue or volume number. Monthly Follow the directions for a weekly magazine, but do not include the day of publication.
Online Writing Lab Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN Tutorial Center for Writers. A Novel, a Play, or a Poem In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the work. Writing a Research Paper Summary: The Irish Question and British Politics, Online Writing Labs OWLsInternet Search Tools, Resources for Writers and Teachers, Purdue Resources, Links to other WWW writing resources. More in the Style Center. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration.
Newspaper List the author s resdarch title of the article in quotation marks, name of newspaper as it appears on the masthead omitting paapers introductory article such as "the," the complete date of publication -- day, month, and year, a colon, and a page number s including section designation such as A and B or 1 and 2 if included as listed in the newspaper. Omit any volume or issue numbers. Lettered Sections Charles, Raymond.
Numbered Sections Wilbert, Kenneth. Computer Sources Include information as required below. If some of this information is not available, e. CD-ROMS Click at this page research sources are now published as databases on CD-ROMS. Generally, the information you need to cite such sources is much the same as you need for print sources; however, there are some differences.
Entire CD-ROM Database Hughes, Keith. Part writting a CD-ROM Database Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work Smythe, Leslie. Ivory Tower UP, Cited work originally published as a full-length work Fox, James. The Modern Reader's CD Pqpers. Some CD-ROMs offer material previously published in the print media. Such sources are often periodically published by national distributors and include newspapers, journals, magazines, and other reference works.
If you are citing such a source, you must include the publication information for the print source before you list the information for the CD-ROM source. You must also list the name mal the vendor which periodically publishes the CD-ROM and the time of publication.
New York Times Ondisc. Diskette Cite an entire diskette as you would a book, but include the source medium as with CD-ROMS. On Writing Short Fiction: Notes from the Master. If your source is a story, article, poem, or papeers work published as part of the diskette, indicate diskette as the source medium.
Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. The Modern Reader's Library. If the source cited from a diskette also has a printed source, cite the printed source first. Online Sources Online information is unlike published information in that it exists only in an electronic environment and is often subject to day-to-day change.
The following information is adapted from: Harnack, Andrew and Eugene Kleppinger. A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources. For writers creating in-text citations wditing Works Cited lists for online sources, the MLA Handbook provides the following recommendations: Download or print any online material you plan to use, in case it becomes tto later. Don't introduce a hyphen at the break of a URL between two lines. World Wide Web Site When you document sources from the World Wide Web, the MLA suggests that your Works Cited entries contain as many items from the following list as are relevant and available: Name of the author, editor, compiler, translator, or site maintainer if guide to writing research papers mla and relevantalphabetized by last name and followed by any appropriate abbreviations, such as ed.
Although no single entry will contain all these items of information, most Works Cited entries for Web sources will include the following basic information: A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains. Victorian Women Writers Project Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources Article in an Electronic Journal ejournal Joyce, Michael.
Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved. The William Faulkner Society Home Page NAIC Online Cite an E-Mail source as you would a memo or a personal letter. Include the following information if your mentor requires a complete wtiting. Format MLA format for a research paper does not require a table of contents, an outline, or an abstract.
MLA format also does not require a title page. Instead, include the necessary information on the first page of the text as seen below: Your last name and page number a half-inch from the top of the page on the right side to run continually throughout oapers paper. Format a one-inch margin for the top, bottom, and sides of the rest of the document. Double-spacing of text is required.
Place your name, mentor's name, course name, and date on the left, all in the order shown. Center your title you may place it in bold print. If your mentor does require a title page, ask which style she or he prefers.