The creation of new think tank has been emphasized by certain agencies as being more realistic, innovative, evaluative and need based. In recent scenario the Planning Commission has become the subject of much criticism typically with regard to esssay the Poverty Line for the rural and the urban areas. The unrealistic portray of poverty followed by the hegemony over states in allocating resources has raised brows of stakeholders from states and several other quarters fueling the cause to scrap the commission.
The Planning Commission is the non-statutory body, advisory in role, constituted post-independence with Jawaharlal Nehru as its first Chairperson. The idea of planning was not new then but has been topic of much discussion even before gaining plwnning. During 's viz Karachi session, Fazipur Session of INC economic perspective of planning has been discussed at length.
The session of INC saw the establishment of National Planning Committee at the instance of S. C Bose whose report was put esay only after World war-II in The planning commission is the model outcome of this very report and several plans mooted during the decade such as Bombay Plan, Peoples Plan, Gandhian Plan and Sarvodaya Plan etc.
The Planning is categorized into two broad categories viz imperative and indicative planning. The imperative planning lay a centrally command body where state ownership is stressed as a theme for effective planning. The indicative planning on the other hand shares a mix of both public and private ownership delving into wavery market behavior to thread bare planning models and approaches concern. Tussle with Finance Commission The critic and stakeholders have raised concerns and resonated against the duality or the parallel role of Finance Commission vis a vis Planning Commission.
The Planning Commission being a non-statutory body outnumbered and truncated the role of Finance Commission under political lf in contemporaries. The Finance Commission is constituted under Article of the Constitution is a constitutional body. The framers of our Constitution had known the vital role for it essay on planning commission of india accomplishing economic goals for the country but reducing its role by the non-statutory body is not taken by several quarters.
The rebalancing has been done now with the scrapping of Planning Commission but this should be followed by the restoration of role, functioning and importance of Finance Commission in leashing model roles and objectives as dreamt by the founders of our Constitution. Losing Planning Commission relevance The appointments in the Planning Commission in recent times have been reduced to mere as a political fulfilment.
The Five Year Plans by the planning Commission breaches and is followed by a suitable revision in target or plan itself; reducing its resolve indua trigger the momentum to achieve the economic and other social objectives. The conclusions of FYP are not followed by a conciliatory account of plan achievements vs "essay on planning commission of india" achievements. The accountability is not defined suitably.
There is a lack of evolutionary approach of the Commission however the same has been restored to some extent with the constitution of Independent Evaluation Office in recent times. The alienation of Planning Commission with ground realities has often been the point of criticism. The take-aways of prevision Plans is not factored into forward plans suggesting the Commission only being a bureaucratic framework..
Short Essay on Summer Vacation in English Article shared by Prasad Nanda School closes down next week for the summer holidays. I am eagerly awaiting the day I go home from school knowing that I will not be expected to enter my classroom for two long months. There are many things that I would like to do in my holidays. First of all I will visit all my friends turn by turn.
They keep pestering me to visit them at home but school keeps me too busy, my friends and I will play the whole day long. Cricket is my favourite sport and my friends have organized cricket matches during the holidays. I am looking forward to playing and bringing honours to my team. My parents have planned a holiday for fifteen days.
We plan to take the train that leaves. From there we propose to go to the hill station called Kasauli. It is a comparatively small hill station but it is extrernely charming indeed. There are some beautiful hotels there and my family loves to stay at one particular hotel run by an old British lady. In Kasauli, I shall go for long walks with my sister in the morning and even in the evening. One often hears about ghosts in hill stations and I love the stories that are told by the local people.
I shall talk to the people and probably unearth some unknown stories from the past.
Essay on Brain Drain in India On By Ankita Mitra Category: Essays, Paragraphs and Articles Brian Drain refers the situation when highly qualified and trained people leave a country to permanently settle in some other country. It is also referred to as Human capital flight. The problem of Brain-drain, in our age, has become very elusive.
The developing countries essay on brain drain problem in india India are desperately in need of talents, especially in the field of science and technology but for one reason or the other the talents and fleeing their countries, leaving their native lands impoverished in the process. Brain Drain is an extremely serious problem for a developing countries. India can be taken as an instance in point. After independence this country is engaged in difficult struggle against poverty.
But struggles cannot be launched in papers; they require armies of trained personnel — the scientists, technical knowhow and specialists in the field of planned development. If, instead of contributing to the prosperity of India, the Indian scientists, research scholars, engineers, doctors and economists immigrate to other countries, it is difficult to see how India can implement her development plans and attain her goal of prosperity. In ancient times the scholars of one country visited neighboring countries, and they often stayed there for years, both learning and teaching.
The great scholars of China and Persia and other scholars from the West visited India during her prosperous days in the past and wrote memoirs which are precious materials for Indian history. But these were not considered brain drain then. For when Hiuen Tsang came to India or Shilbhadra visited Tibet, staying there for many years, their absence from their own countries did not make much difference.
On the contrary, their experiences and wisdom gained from their visits enriched their countries. Such exchanges benefited the countries in those days and built a bridge of understanding and amity when communication between even the neighbours was not easy. In the under-developed countries like India, the ambitious and highly educated people found it very difficult to climb the peak, for the obstacles were many and the bureaucratic bungling was irritating. Hence, the alarming exodus started in the fifties and in the seventies the brain-drain appeared to be complete. Hundred of talents emigrated to the U.
If the emigrants could have all those assurances they would not think of fleeing their country. But the problem is that a developing country like India could hardly afford to accommodate so many ambitious people, nor could the scope be made broad enough to secure affluence for all. Some of them, after training and experiences in foreign countries, return home with individual drams and when they fail to fit in with the evolving patterns at home, despair drives them away again. But India needs these professionally trained people, so they should be persuaded to stay in India and be content with less lucrative jobs.
When India is rich enough to reward them, they would not find much to complain about.
Please sign up to read full document. Text Preview India is a large country with a large population. She is faced with an alarming situation of widespread unemployment. A large number of people are unemployed both in the urban and rural areas. Unemployment is a condition of involuntary or forced idleness, which on the one hand hinders effective demand for agricultural and industrial products, and on the other paves the way for anti-social activities.
It indicates a situation wherein all human resources which should have been geared to maximise the natural production are not being utilised. Such a situation results in far-reaching consequences. It makes the measures to increase production and renders the rights of labour unsafe. Though it is a world-wide phenomenon, its consequences in under-developed and essay on job opportunity in india couptries are more dangerous than in industrially advanced countries, where it is only fractional and largely due to occasional deficiency in aggregate demand.
In developing countries like India the production is labour Intensive rather than capital intensive, the wages and earnings of the workers are very inadequate resulting in general poverty all over. There is large scale under-employment in rural areas. In the middle class the extent of unemployment has reached alarming proportions. It is a most serious problem faced by India and a great challenge to the planners and administrators of the country. In recent years the problem has become a cause for grave concern as it has started threatening our economic and social fibre.
It needs most immediate attention.
Below is an essay on "Prison Administration in India" from Anti Essays, your source for research essay on prison system in india, essays, and term paper examples. Prisonization symbolizes a system of punishment and also a sort of institutional placement of under-trials and suspects during the period of trial. Since there cannot be a society without crime and criminals, the institution of prison is indispensible for every country. A prison may thus serve to deter the offender or it may be used as a method of retribution or vengeance, while it also fulfils the preventive purpose of punishment by the eliminations of source from the society.
That apart from the abovementioned purposes it may also serve as an institution for the reformation and rehabilitation of offenders. Thus whatever be the object of punishment, the prison serves to keep offenders under control and custody. The origin of prison is inter-linked with the system of imprisonment which originated in the first quarter of the 19th century. Initially, prisons were used as detention houses for under-trials. Persons who were guilty of some political offence or war crimes or who failed to pay their debts or fines were lodged in prison cells with a view to extracting confession from them or securing the payment of debts or fines.
However the modern progressive view regards crime as a social disease and favors treatment of offenders through non-penal methods such as probation, parole, open jails etc. Thus whatever be the reaction of society to crime, the lodging of criminals in prison gives rise to several problems of.
To know and understand the nature of Indian economy, it is very necessary to have a clear idea about the meaning of Indian economy. After Independence India launched her First Click Years plan in ; then now 5-Year Plan is going on. Although India is an agro-based economy, but lot of emphasis has been given on the development of industries both consumer goods and capital goodsservice sector including construction, trade, commerce, banking system etc. Both central and state governments in India join their hands in all the spheres leading to economic development.
On the basis of production: Indian economy can broadly be divided into three heads: This sector consists of agriculture and its allied activities including dairy, poultry, cattle rearing, fishing, forestry, animal husbandry etc. In the primary sector, most of the goods are produced by using natural resources, since India is a overpopulated agro based economy, therefore, this sector plays an important role for economic growth.
This sector is also known as industrial sector. In this category, all types of manufacturing sector like large scale, small scale and tiny scale are included. Small and tiny scale industries include clothes, candle, poultry, match box, handloom, toys etc. These units provide huge employment.
On the other hand, large scale industries like iron and steel, heavy engineering, chemicals, fertilizers, shipbuilding etc. This sector produces different services like transport, communication, banking, insurance, trade and commerce, including both national and international trade. Moreover, all the professional services like doctors, engineers, teachers, lawyers etc. Again the services provided by the government itself for the welfare of citizens are also included in the tertiary sector.
Indian economy can be broadly divided into two heads: It consists of all the economic organizations which are controlled and managed by the government. All the government-owned production units come under this head. These units produce and distribute goods and services among the common mass with an objective of welfare motives. It consists of all the economic enterprises which are controlled and managed by the private enterprises. All the privately owned production units are come under this head.
Central Bank is an apex financial institution of a country. It is neededto regulate and control the monetary system of an economy. The need for acentral bank in India was felt during 18 th century. In Lord Keynes also recommended to set up a Central Bank. The establishment indiab a Central Ecomomy that wouldissue notes and at the read more time function as banker to the Government wasrecommended in by the Royal Commission in Indian Currency andFinance known as the Hilton Young Commission.
InCentralBanking inquiry Committee also recommended for setting up of a CentralBank in India. As a result of all theserecommendations and suggestions, a fresh bill was passed by the assemblyon December 22, and got Governor General Ascent on March 6, Thus, the Reserve Bank of India started working since, 1 st April, inaccordance with the provision of the Reserve Bank of India Act, Objectives and Reasons for the Establishment of R. The main objectives for establishment of RBI as the Central Bank of Indiawere essay on rbi in indian economy follows:.
Location-based services A report by the US Federal Reserve March found that 21 percent of mobile phone owners had used mobile banking in the past 12 months. A third of mobile phone users say that they may consider performing some kind of financial transaction through their mobile phone. But most of the users are interested in performing basic transactions such as querying for account balance and making bill payment. Future functionalities in mobile banking[ edit ] Based on the 'International Review of Business Research Papers' from World business Institute, Australia, following are the key functional trends possible in world of Mobile Banking.
With the advent of technology and increasing use of smartphone and tablet based devices, the use of Mobile Banking functionality would enable customer connect across entire customer life cycle much comprehensively than before. With this scenario, current mobile banking objectives of say building relationships, reducing cost, achieving new revenue stream will transform to enable new objectives targeting higher level goals such as building brand of the banking organization.
Emerging technology and functionalities would enable to create new ways of lead generation, prospecting as well as developing deep customer relationship and mobile banking world would achieve superior customer experience with bi-directional communications. Among digital channels, mobile banking is a clear IT investment priority in as retail banks attempt to capitalise on the features unique to mobile, such as location-based services. Challenges for a mobile banking solution[ edit ] Key challenges in developing a sophisticated mobile banking application are: Handset accessibility[ edit ] There are a large number of different mobile phone devices and it is a big challenge for banks to offer a mobile banking solution on any type of device.
Some of these devices support Java ME and others support SIM Application Toolkita WAP browser, or only SMS. Initial interoperability issues however have been localized, with countries like India using portals like "R-World" to enable the limitations of low end java based phones, while focus on areas such as South Africa have defaulted to the USSD as a basis of communication achievable with any phone. The desire for interoperability is largely dependent on the banks themselves, where installed applications Java based or native provide better security, are easier to use and allow development of more complex capabilities similar to those of internet banking while SMS can provide the basics but becomes difficult to operate with more complex transactions.
There is a myth that there is a challenge of interoperability between mobile banking applications due to perceived lack of common technology standards for mobile banking. In practice it is too early in the service lifecycle for interoperability to be addressed within an individual country, as very few countries have more than one mobile banking service provider. In practice, banking interfaces are well defined and money movements between banks follow the IS standard. As mobile banking matures, money movements between service providers will naturally adopt the same standards as in the banking world.
In JanuaryMobile Marketing Association MMA Banking Sub-Committee, chaired by CellTrust and VeriSign Inc. The types of cybercrimes which may affect mobile-banking might range from unauthorized use while the owner is using the toilet, to remote-hacking, or even jamming or interference via the internet or telephone network datastreams.