Essay on poverty problem in india
Individuals experiencing poverty do not have the means to pay for basic needs of daily life like food, clothes and shelter. Poverty also staves people off from accessing much needed social tools of well-being like education and health requirements.
The NSAP is a centrally sponsored programme with per cent central funding and it is intended to ensure that social protection to the beneficiaries throughout povfrty country is uniformly available without interruption. Because of the poverty, around half population in India is living a miserable life. Some people have all the privileges. A system of incentives and disincentives can also be of great importance.
The direct consequences stemming from this problem are hunger, malnutrition and susceptibility to diseases which have been identified as major problems across the world. It impacts individuals in a socio-psychological way with them not being able to afford simple recreational activities and getting progressively marginalized in the society. The World Bank has updated its international poverty line figures to 1.
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Current statistics state that over half the populations in the world, about 3 billion people, are forced to live on less than 2. In India, as per government reports, monthly per capita consumption expenditure is Rs. This data is currently being accepted as the poverty threshold of the country. As of Causes of Poverty in India Factors contributing to the persistent problem of poverty in the country are many and they need to be identified in order to be addressed properly. They can be categorized under the following heads. Demographic — the main factor that contributes to poverty-ridden state of the country from a demographical point of view is the problem of over population.
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The growth of population in the country has so far exceeded the growth in economy and the gross result is that the poverty figures have remained more or less consistent. In rural areas, size of the families is bigger and that translates into lowering the per capita income values and ultimately lowering of standard of living. Population growth spurt also leads to generation of unemployment and that means diluting out of wages for jobs further lowering income.
Economic —there are a host of economic reasons behind persistence of the poverty problems which are outlined hereunder: Poor Agricultural Infrastructure —Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy. But outdated farming practices, lack of proper irrigation infrastructure and even lack of formal knowledge of crop handling has affected the productivity in this sector tremendously. Unequal distribution of assets — with the economy changing directions rapidly, the earning structure evolves differently in different economic income groups.
Upper and middle income groups see a faster increase in earnings than lower income groups. Also assets like land, cattle as well as realty are distributed disproportionately among the population with certain people owning majority shares than other sectors of the society and their profits from these assets are also unequally distributed. Unemployment — another major economic factor that is causative of poverty in the country is the rising unemployment rate. Inflation and Price hike — the term Inflation may be defined as an increase in prices of commodities coinciding with the fall in the purchasing value of money.
As a direct consequence of inflation, effective price of food, clothing items as well as real estate rises. The salaries and wages do not rise as much in keeping up with the inflated prices of commodities leading to effective decrease of the per capita income. Faulty economic liberalization — the LPG Liberalization-Privatization-Globalization attempts initiated by the Indian Government in were directed towards making the economy more suited to international market-trends to invite foreign investments. Successful to certain extent in reviving the economy, the economic reforms had detrimental effects on increasing the wealth distribution scenario.
Rich became richer, while the poor remained poor. Social — The various social issues plaguing the country that contributes towards poverty are: Education and illiteracy — Education, rather its lack thereof and poverty form a vicious cycle that plagues the nation. On the other hand, lack of education and illiteracy prevent individuals from getting better paying jobs and they get stuck at jobs offering minimum wages. Improvement of quality of life gets hindered and the cycle once again comes into action.
Outdated Social Customs — Social customs like the caste system cause segregation and marginalization of certain sections of the society. Certain castes are considered untouchables still and are not employed by upper caste, leaving very specific and low paying jobs that they can live off. The second is the cause of the first.
Lack of skilled labour — lack of adequate vocational training makes the huge labour force available in India largely unskilled, which is unsuitable for offering maximum economic value. Lack of education, much less higher education, is also a contributing factor towards this. As a result the women of the family add to the number of dependents that need to be fed instead of being able to contribute considerably in the family income which might assuage the poverty situation of the family. Wealthy people with privileged connection are able to acquire more wealth simply by bribing government officials to maximize their profits from such schemes while the poor remain in a state of neglect for not being able to assert such connections.
Individual — individual lack of efforts also contribute towards generating poverty.
- Population Control As the rising population is the major reason behind the poverty, controlling the population can change the scenario and help India to reduce and stop the poverty in India.
- Some of the bigger states such as Bihar, Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh have shown only marginal decline in poverty ratio, particularly in rural areas.
- Measures should be taken to bridge the immense gap that remains in distribution in wealth among different levels of the society.
Some people are unwilling to work hard or even not willing to work altogether, leaving their families in the darkness of poverty. Personal demons like drinking and gambling also leads to draining of the family income inciting poverty. Political — in India, socio-economic reform strategies has been largely directed by political interest and are implemented to serve a choice section of the society that is potentially a deciding factor in the elections. As a result, the issue is not addressed in its entirety leaving much scope of improvements.
Climatic — maximum portion of India experiences a tropical climate throughout the year that is not conducive to hard manual labour leading to lowering of productivity and the wages suffer consequently. If we try to have a systematic look at them, we should proceed under the three following heads: Effect on Health — one of the most devastating effects that poverty has is on the overall health of the nation. The most prominent health issue stemming from poverty is malnutrition. The problem of malnutrition is widespread in all age-groups of the country but children are most adversely affected by this.
Limited income in larger families leads to lack of access to sufficient nutritious food for their children. These children over time suffer from severe health problems like low body weight, mental, physical disabilities and a general poor state of immunity making them susceptible to diseases. Children from poor backgrounds are twice as susceptible to suffer from anemia, nutrient deficiencies, impaired vision, and even cardiac problems. Malnutrition is a gross contributor of infant mortality in the country and 38 out of every 1, babies born in India die before their first birthday.
Malnutrition among adult also leads to poor health in adults click leaches their capacity for manual labour leading to a decrease in income due to weakness and diseases.
Poverty also causes definite decline in the sanitary practices among poor who cannot afford proper bathrooms and disinfectants.
A huge percentage of people in India depend on agriculture which is poor and cause poverty. In a backdrop of unemployment and marginalization, the poor resort to criminal activities to earn money. We all should do everything possible and within our limits to help alleviate poverty from our country. Malnutrition among adult also leads to poor health in adults that leaches their capacity for manual labour leading to a decrease in income due to weakness and diseases. Essay generally have three main parts, Introduction, impact or more detailed info and then summary or conclusion.
As a result susceptibility to waterborne diseases peak among the poor. Lack of access to as well as means to procure appropriate treatment also affects overall mortality of the population which is lower in poor countries than developed nations like the USA. Effects on Society — poverty exerts some gravely concerning effects over the overall societal health as well. These may be discussed along the following lines: Violence and crime rate — incidence of violence and crime have been found to be geographically coincident. In a backdrop of unemployment and marginalization, the poor resort to criminal activities to earn money.
Coupled with lack of education and properly formed moral conscience, a poverty ridden society is more susceptible to violence by its people against its own people from a sense of deep-seated discontent and rage. Homelessness — apart from a definite drop in the esthetic representation of the country, homelessness affects child health, women safety and overall increase in criminal tendencies.
Stress — lack of money is a major cause of stress among the middle-class and the poor and leads to decline in productivity of individuals.
Planning Commission estimates on the basis of NSSO Data, Becoming extra rich and extra poor creates a huge widening gap between the rich and the poor people. Although the economic reform measures cannot be said to be solely responsible for such event but there are sufficient reasons to believe that strong linkages exist between the availability of food grains, PDS off take, food grains prices and poverty ratio. Little is known of their and labour in the growing cities. We need more food, more houses, and more hospitals for them. Education and illiteracy — Education, rather its lack thereof and poverty form a vicious cycle that plagues the nation. Poverty keeps a person lack of freedom, mental well-being, physical well-being, and security. Therefore, the produce is bad.
Child labour — one of the hallmarks of a poverty-ridden society is the widespread practices of exploitation and the worst of it comes in the form of child labour. Large families fail to meet the monetary needs of the members and children as young as 5 years are made to start earning in order to contribute to the family income. Terrorism — proclivity of youth towards terrorism stems from a combination of extreme poverty and lack of education making them susceptible to brainwashing.
Effect on Economy —poverty is a direct index indicating success of the economy of the country. The number of people living under the poverty threshold indicates whether the economy is powerful enough to generate adequate jobs and amenities for its people. Schemes providing subsidies for the poor of the country again impose a drain on the economy.
Solutions The measures that should be taken to fight the demon of poverty in India are outlined below: Growth of population at the current rate should be checked by implementation of policies and awareness promoting birth control. All efforts should be made to increase the employment opportunities in the country, either by inviting more foreign investments or by encouraging self-employment schemes. Measures should be taken to bridge the immense gap that remains in distribution in wealth among different levels of the society.
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Certain Indian states are more poverty stricken than others like Odhisha and the North East states. Government should seek to encourage investment in these states by offering special concessions on taxes.
Primary needs of people for attaining a satisfactory quality of life like food items, clean drinking water should be available more readily. Improvement of the Subsidy rates on commodities and Public Distribution system should be made. Free high school education and an increased number of functioning health centers should be provided by click to see more government.