Common pitfalls Paragraphs represent the basic building blocks of the arguments made in academic essays. This article looks at two essential elements of paragraphs, offers a general method for constructing paragraphs, drafts a general template for paragraph structure, and looks at some common paragraph pitfalls. In an academic essay, the purpose of a paragraph is to support a single claim or idea that helps establish the overall argument or purpose of the paper.
Paragraphs should be focused around this single idea or point, and they should be clearly related to what comes before them. Topic sentences and transitions One of the best ways to ensure that a paragraph is focused and clearly related to the thesis statement is to ensure that it has a good topic sentence.
Each sentence in a paragraph should help support the topic sentence of that paragraph in the same way that each paragraph should relate to the thesis statementso each sentence should connect with the main point of the paragraph in some way. Sentences should also connect well with each other, and in forging sentence-to-sentence connections, good transitions are crucial. Beyond of these two key features of good paragraphs good topic sentences and transitionsthere is a certain method of presenting information in a paragraph, and there are things to avoid in paragraphs.
Introduce, provide, explain, repeatconclude Following the topic sentence, a paragraph should introduce, provide, and explain its evidence. After this, it should this web page repeat, with new topic-sentence-related evidence, or take a sentence or two to close the paragraph. While good topic sentences offer an idea of what the paragraph is going to be about and how that fits into the rest of the paper, at the heart of a paragraph are evidence and paragraphs in an essay on the that support the key claim of the paragraph.
We can call these the heart of a paragraph both in the sense that they give purpose to the paragraph and in the sense that they appear roughly in the middle of the paragraph. As the body of an essay needs a good introductionso do the evidence and explanation given in a paragraph. Usually, this evidence will need to be contextualized, prefaced, or otherwise introduced before it is provided. In a sociology paper, this might mean explaining the significance of a statistic; in literary studies, the most interesting element of a quotation from a poem or story; in history of technology, what the technical explanation of a process means in simple terms; and in philosophy, the assumptions and logical connections at work in an argument.
Different fields deal with such explanation in different ways, but they all require it. Conclude Finally, a paragraph requires a satisfying conclusion. If not, consider adding a summary sentence. General template This template presents a very simple paragraph structure. It is highly adaptable and can be used throughout an essay, although there are certainly other ways of forming good paragraphs.
A good, simple paragraph might look something like this: Sentence or more that introduces or contextualizes evidence. Sentence or more that provides evidence in support of the topic sentence. Sentence or more that explains how the evidence just given relates to the topic sentence. Sentence or more that either introduces new topic sentence-related evidence go back to step 2 or closes the paragraph. Consider an example to illustrate: This paragraph could be altered or expanded and improved in several ways, but the course of the paragraph would always need to maintain the general form of 1 through 5.
Overview[ edit ] Between and Malthus published six editions of his famous treatise, updating each edition to incorporate new material, to address criticism, and to convey changes in his own perspectives on the subject. He wrote the original text in reaction to the optimism of his father and his father's associates notably Rousseau regarding the future improvement of society.
Malthus also constructed his case as a specific response to writings of William Godwin — and of the Marquis de Condorcet — Part of Thomas Malthus 's table of population growth in Englandfrom his An Essay on the Principle of Population, 6th edition, Malthus regarded ideals of future improvement in the lot of humanity with scepticism, considering that throughout history a segment of every human population seemed relegated to poverty.
He explained this phenomenon by arguing that population growth generally expanded in times and in regions of plenty until the size of the population relative to the primary resources caused distress: This constant effort as constantly tends to subject the lower classes of the society to distress and to prevent any great permanent amelioration of their condition".
An Essay on the Principle of Population. We will suppose the means of subsistence in any country just equal to the easy support of its inhabitants. The constant effort towards population The food therefore which before supported seven millions must now be divided among seven millions and a half or eight millions. The poor consequently must live much worse, and many of them be reduced to severe distress. The number of labourers also being above the click the following article of the work in the market, the price of labour must tend toward a decrease, while the price of provisions would at the same time tend to rise.
The labourer therefore must work harder to earn the same as he did before. During this season of distress, the discouragements to marriage, and the difficulty of rearing a family are so great that population is at a stand. In the mean time the cheapness of labour, the plenty of labourers, and the necessity of an increased industry amongst them, encourage cultivators to employ more labour upon their land, to turn up fresh soil, and to manure and improve more completely what is already in tillage, till ultimately the means of subsistence become in the same proportion to the population as at the period from which we set out.
The situation of the labourer being then again tolerably comfortable, the restraints to population are in some degree loosened, and the same retrograde and progressive movements with respect to happiness are repeated. Chapter II, p 19 in Oxford World's Classics reprint. Malthus also saw that societies through history had experienced at one time or another epidemics, famines, or wars: The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.
The vices of mankind are active and able ministers of depopulation. They are the precursors in the great army of destruction, and often finish the dreadful work themselves. But should they fail in this war of extermination, populatino seasons, epidemics, pestilence, and plague advance in terrific array, and sweep off their thousands and tens of thousands.
Should success be still incomplete, gigantic inevitable famine stalks in the rear, and with one mighty blow levels the population with the food of the world. Chapter VII, p 44  The rapid increase in the global population of the past century exemplifies Malthus's predicted population patterns; it also appears to describe populagion dynamics of complex pre-industrial societies. These findings are the basis for neo-malthusian modern mathematical models of long-term historical dynamics.
If the subsistence for man that the earth affords was to be increased every twenty-five years by a quantity equal to what the whole world at present produces, this would allow the power of production in the princjple to be absolutely unlimited, and its ratio of increase much greater than we can conceive that any possible exertions of mankind could make it Chapter 2, p 8  To date, world population has remained below his predicted line.
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue https: When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice at bottom. MLA Formatting Quotations Summary: MLA Modern Language Association style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources quoattions the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook 8th ed. Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M.
Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Uing, Purdue OWL Staff Last Edited: Below are some basic guidelines for incorporating quotations into your paper. Please note that all pages in MLA should be double-spaced. Short quotations To indicate short quotations fewer than four typed lines of prose or three lines of verse in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks.
Provide the author and specific page citation in the case of verse, provide line numbers in the text, and include a complete reference on the Works Cited page. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. Question marks and exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are a part of the quoted passage but after the parenthetical citation if they are a part of your text.
For example, when quoting short passages of prose, use the following examples: According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" Foulkesthough others disagree. Fssay to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" Foulkes .
Long quotations For quotations that are more than four lines of prose or three lines of verse, place quotations in a free-standing block of text and omit quotation marks. Only indent the first line of the quotation by an additional quarter inch if you are citing multiple paragraphs. Your parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark.
When quoting verse, maintain original line breaks. You should maintain double-spacing throughout your essay. For example, when citing more than four lines of prose, use the following examples: Nelly Dean treats Using quotations in an essay on the poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have the in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow.
By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. Bronte 78 When citing long sections more than three quptations of poetry, keep formatting as close to the original as possible.
In his poem "My Papa's Waltz," Theodore Roethke explores his childhood with his father: The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death: Such waltzing was not easy. We Romped until the pans Slid from the kitchen shelf; My mother's countenance Could not unfrown itself.
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How does he resolve or circumvent this paradox. Those who did not experience the Holocaust, it is fair to say, cannot begin to understand what it was like; those who did cannot begin to describe it. To speak of the booj camps is to fail to convey the depth of the evil, and any failure is disrespectful to the memories of those who died in the Holocaust. Speech, therefore, may seem forbidden, because it necessarily fails to express the truth of the Holocaust.
Yet, if nobody speaks an essay on the book night the Holocaust, those who died will go forgotten. It has become a commonplace among AIDS nlght to use a slogan equating silence with death; similarly, it is the very real fear of many Holocaust survivors that a failure to speak about what happened during the Holocaust could lead to a possible recurrence of the same evil. Silence, it is sometimes said, gives a posthumous victory to Hitler, because it erases the memory of the atrocities that were committed at his command.
Sn is the expression of an author, and a narrator, caught between silence and speech. Eliezer often maintains something of a clinical detachment when describing the horrors of the camps. He avoids becoming gruesome or ever describing in precise click to see more the extent of his suffering.
He withdraws from the subject, sensing that approaching it too closely would be sacrilege. Wiesel carefully avoids melodrama and intense scrutiny of the events, relating the facts of his experiences. Does Wiesel believe that God is dead. Elie Wiesel and Eliezer are not exactly the same, but Eliezer expresses, in most cases, the emotions that Wiesel felt at the time of the Holocaust.
Yet Eliezer is not enlightened by his rejection of God; instead, he is reduced to the shell of a person. Likewise, Akiba Drumer, upon abandoning his faith, loses his will to live. Wiesel seems to be suggesting that the events of the Holocaust prove that faith is a necessary element in human survival, because it preserves man, whether or not it is based in reality. Faith, Wiesel seems to say, enables hope, and it is always necessary for the prisoners to maintain hope, in order for them to maintain an essay on the book night.
Even when Eliezer claims to abandon God as an abstract idea, he remains incapable of abandoning his attachment to God as an everyday part of his life. It seems that Eliezer, at his core, still maintains a kind of belief in God.
The Five-Paragraph Essay A classic format for compositions is the five-paragraph essay. It is not the only format for writing an essay, of course, but it is a useful model for you to keep in mind, especially as you begin to develop your composition skills. The following material is adapted from a handout prepared by Harry Livermore for his high just click for source English classes at Cook High School in Adel, Georgia. It is used here with his permission. Introductory Paragraph See, first, Writing Introductory Paragraphs for different ways of getting your reader involved in your essay.
The introductory paragraph should also include the thesis statement, a kind of mini-outline for the paper: The last sentence of this paragraph must also contain a transitional "hook" which moves the reader to the first paragraph of the body of the paper. Body — First paragraph: The first paragraph of the body should contain the strongest argument, most significant example, cleverest illustration, or an obvious beginning point.
The first sentence of this paragraph should include the "reverse hook" which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the introductory paragraph. The topic for this paragraph should be in the first or second sentence. This topic should relate to the thesis statement in the introductory paragraph. The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the second paragraph of the body.
Body — Second paragraph: The second paragraph of the body should contain the second strongest argument, second most significant example, second cleverest illustration, or an obvious follow up this web page first paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the first paragraph of the body.
The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional hook to tie into the third paragraph of the body. Body — Third paragraph: The third paragraph click the body should contain the weakest argument, weakest example, weakest illustration, or an obvious follow up to the second paragraph in the body. The first sentence of this paragraph should include the reverse hook which ties in with the transitional hook at the end of the second paragraph.
The last sentence in this paragraph should include a transitional concluding hook that signals the reader that this is the final major point being made in this paper. This hook also leads into the last, or concluding, paragraph. This paragraph should include the following: The restatement, however, must not be a duplicate thesis statement. This final statement may be a "call to action" in an persuasive paper. A Sample Paper 1Stephen King, creator of such stories as Carrie and Pet Sematary, stated that the Edgar Allan Poe stories he read as a child gave him the inspiration and instruction he needed to become the writer that he is.
The introductory paragraph includes a paraphrase of something said by a famous person in order to get the reader's attention.
Using Search Engines Wisely. Using Sources Correctly There are three main ways to uses sources in your research paper. Or you may summarize. All three require an in-text parenthetical citation. In-text Citations You CANNOT use information from any website or published book unless you give the author or site credit--BOTH inside your text and at the end of your quoting someone in an essay on the. In other words, it is NOT enough to simply list the sources you used on a Works Cited Page or References List.
As your instructor reads your essay, he or she should clearly be able to see which sentences, facts, or sections of your essay came from Source A, Source B, or Source C, etc. You can give credit to your sources within your text in two different ways: Your paper might say something like According to John Smithauthor of Pocahontas Is My Love, "Native American women value a deep spiritual connection to the environment. Notice also that I placed the date that the book was published directly after the author's name in parentheses--this is proper APA format.
If I was using a particular website instead of John Smith's bookthe signal phrase would look exactly the same, but I would say "According to Pocahontasrules. Use an in-text citation in situations where you are not quoting someone directly, but rather using information from another source such as a fact, summary, or paraphrase to support your own ideas. She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," but she did not offer an explanation Jones,p. Notice that it's clear within this sentence that I'm referring to a certain person's beliefs, but since this person's name does not appear at the beginning of the sentence, I have placed her name, the year that her article was published, and the page number where I retrieved this information in parentheses at the end of the sentence.
Information on how to format an in-text citation Summarizing Sources Summarize an article or a larger section of an article whenever you simply want to present the author's general ideas in your essay. How to Write an Effective Summary: Cover up the original article, it is key that you not quote from the original work. Restate what you've read in your own words, and be sure to give the author credit using an in-text citation.
Congressman Joe Smith believes that our approach to reforming the healthcare system is backwards and costly. He discusses our rising national debt in "Healthcare: Let's Talk" and lists several statistics to prove that Obama's new plan will only make things worse. Summaries are most often used to condense larger texts into more manageable chucks.
Should students be allowed to have phones in elementary and high schools. Wgite students have to wear uniforms. Should college athletes be paid for playing. Should the elderly receive free bus rides. Should state source be free to attend. Should all American citizens have to complete a year of community service.
Should students be required to take Spanish classes. Should marijuana be legal for medicinal purposes. Should the voting age be lowered to thirteen. Should the driving age be raised to twenty-one. Should students be paid for having good grades. Should illegal immigrants be allowed to get drivers licenses.
Should not wearing a seat-belt be illegal. Should students have to pass a basic skills test to graduate high school. Should schools raise money by selling candy and sugary soft drinks to students. Should schools serve french-fries and fried potato products to students at lunch. Should girls be allowed to play on boys sports teams. Should teens be able to buy violent video games. Should boys and girls be in separate classes.
Should teenage girls be allowed to get birth control without the permission of their parents. Should our country have free health care. Should immigration laws be reformed. Should the federal government recognize civil unions. Should people who download music and movies illegally be punished.